Dr. John E. Richards - Unpublished Papers

Sanchez, C.E., Richards, J.E., & Almli, C.R. (2010).  Age-specific MRI brain templates for healthy brain development from 4 to 24 years (PDF)

Richards, J.E. (2006). Realistic cortical source models of ERP.  (PDF)

Richards, J.E. (2002). Using EMSE and EGI for source analysis display and illustration. (PDF)

Richards, J.E. (2002). Recovering cortical dipole sources from scalp-recorded event-related-potentials using principal components analysis. (PDF).

Richards, J.E. (2000). Prospectus for recording EEG and ERP in infant. (PDF)

Richards, J.E. (1990). Prospectus for measuring eye movements. (PDF)


Richards, J.E. (unpublished manuscript). Neurophysiological basis of eye movements, and the effect of attention on eye movements in the development of infant saccades, smooth pursuit, and visual tracking.

There is an abundant literature on the neurophysiological control of eye movements in cats, primates, mammals. This paper reviews that literature, combining some findings of the attention effects on eye movements, developmental changes in the neurophysiological basis of eye movements in early infancy, and makes some conclusions about how infant eye movements develop over the first 6 months. Given those conclusions, some experiments will be presented to tease apart the multiple brain systems that control eye movement in the young infants

Four conclusions will be made about infant eye movement development.

  1. A system involving the superior colliculus, lateral geniculate nucleus, and V1 and V2 control most eye movements in the newborn, and for 2 to 3 months. These eye movements are reflex-like saccades across the visual field.
  2. Attention-directed eye movements, while they exist at birth, become stronger in frequency during the first six months. The frontal eye fields control attention-directed saccadic eye movements, the middle temporal area controls attention directed smooth pursuit eye movements, and the vestibulo-ocular reflex helps to control the tracking of moving objects with combined head and eye movements.
  3. Development of infant eye movements consists of two general trends. The first trend is the development of the attention-directed systems, and the second is the inhibition of the reflexive systems during attention.
  4. Characteristics of infant eye movements and experimental conditions which elicit those movements can assess the underlying brain systems, and show the development of those systems in the human infant.